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Dr. Hardianto Iridiastadi


HIHardianto Iridiastadi finished his master’s and PhD in Industrial Engineering from Louisiana State University (LSU) and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VT), respectively.  He is the past president of Indonesian Ergonomics Society (PEI), and is currently a member of Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE).

His research is in the area of industrial ergonomics, human error, and fatigue in the transportation sector. He is the co-author of “Ergonomi – Suatu Pengantar”, an Indonesian ergonomic book for university-level students.  He can be reached at

Driver Fatigue – A Review

Examining Research on Indonesian Road and Rail Transport

Road accidents are still a major concern in both industrialized and developing nations. Recent World Health Organization (WHO) report indicated at least 1.25 million fatalities associated with road crashes.  Roughly 60% of the victims are those who are between 15 – 44 years of age.  While the estimated figures of economic loss may vary, road accidents certainly result in a large amount of personal and social burdens.  In Indonesia, safety of road transport has also been a critical issue in the past decade.  The Indonesian Bureau of Statistics in 2013 indicated more than 100,000 cases of road accidents, with more than 25,000 deaths.  This was associated with economic loss of at least Rp.200 billion per year.  Furthermore, Indonesia ranks fifth in the world with respect to the total number of death toll due to road accidents.

While a number of factors may contribute to these accidents, driver fatigue is believed to play a substantial role.  Previous research has demonstrated that fatigue is a major factor in 10 – 30% of road accidents.  Such data in Indonesia are not currently available, but the authorities have frequently noted fatigue/sleepiness as the dominant aspects in many road accidents.

The role of fatigue has also been noted when investigating railway safety in Indonesia.  The National Committee for Transportation Safety has indicated that roughly 45% of rail accidents involve locomotive drivers, and further recommended fatigue management as a viable intervention.  Considering that the railway industry is experiencing a substantial growth in the foreseeable future, the issue of fatigue among railway personnel should receive adequate attention.

Despite the closed relationships between fatigue and safety, research addressing driver fatigue within the context of (peculiar) Indonesian road and rail transport has been fairly scarce.  What causes driver fatigue, how fatigue occurs, and how fatigue is manifested are not clearly known.  What intervention strategies to adopt (and their utility) remains a research gap that needs to be investigated. This paper will report relevant research that has been conducted in Indonesia, and suggest a research roadmap that is suitable for the Indonesian context (and potentially applicable to other developing nations).

Keywords: Driver fatigue, road transport, railway industry, fatigue management, and research roadmap.



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